The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. It is "大脳" in Japanese.
The limbic system is a complex set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, right under the cerebrum. It is “大脳辺縁系” in Japanese.
The thalamus is a structure in the middle of the brain and works to correlate several important processes, including consciousness, sleep, and sensory interpretation.
The hippocampus (Latin for "seahorse") belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles for converting of information from short-term memory to long-term memory.
The amygdala is a section of the brain that is responsible for detecting fear and preparing for emergency events.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control.
The medulla oblongata is located in the brain stem.
The spinal cord is the large group of nerves which runs through the center of the spine.
そういえば「The Evil Within」のゲーム実況で脳に関する単語がいくつか出ていたような。